The definition of Classical Architecture is inseparable from the history of its emergence in the heyday of Greece and Rome, which means it was born and developed in the classical era. The word "classic" contains the meaning and value of timelessness and grace, paired with the highest quality of its design and construction. Classical Architecture also pictures the history of culture and craft in Europe. This term refers to the high-value works of architecture opuses at that time. This epitome of classical elegance took place from the 1st century to the 14th century

  1. Classical Greek Architecture
    As the root of Western architecture, Greek architecture is marked by the presence of the Parthenon Temple which is an icon of this era. The shape of the building is largely influenced by the beliefs of polytheism, as different temples is made to worship different gods
    The main characteristics of this period are:
    Using massive wall structures with natural stone material that are cut square and stacked. Because the openings of doors and windows are able to be made minimally, the inner space of the house becomes dark because light comes only from the front door.
    - The use of stacked structures and also columns at the outside of the building. At the top of the column there is a horizontal continuous lintel, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice called an entablature. As a consequence on the use of the massive structures, wide spans of are not possible, which make spaces between columns is relatively narrow.
    - In between columns and entablature, there are ornaments that usually given in the form of carvings which is known as the Doric style. In Roman times this column style was developed into Ionic and Corinthian style. The main structure of the roof support is also composed of stone and is called a pediment, supported by entablature.
    - There are rows of columns outside the building walls. Besides portraying the impression of a magnificent visual, this is related to the belief of Greek people who are very nature-conscious. They consider the signs that occur in nature is a symbol of the presence of the gods. Therefore they always try to be close to nature, and the temple was made as if it were accessible, clear, and not massive.
  2. Roman Classical Architecture
    In this period, the level of civilization and technology was higher than on Greek period. However, the basic form of architecture still adapt some from Greek’s architecture. Greek period has the Partheon Temple, the Roman period has the famous Pantheon Temple.
    The main characteristics of this period are:
    The use of arc-making technique paired with stacked stone structures, this technique applies too on both in openings of doors or windows, and on the head of the building. The bow which is applied to cover the top of the building is usually called the monolith dome structure. The romans made it by moving the stone little by little until it produces a slope. The Pantheon Temple has a hole at the top of the dome for light infiltrates from above. Roman lighting technology was more advanced than Greece’s, which is influenced by their belief. Thus, inside the building, we can see the circulation of the sun. And on the interior, as most Roman says, you can feel the atmosphere of a nirvana because it.
    - The stone arc structure is also used in making Gates and borders. The Romans often built large gates on the land border, which mark territories they had conquered, symbolizing victory and glory.
    - There are more aesthetic variations of column from the Greek period.
    - Columns starts to stick to the wall, not as separate as in Greek’s buildings.

Until now, these two classic styles above managed to continue to develop. Classical architecture is even adopted on the modern era, as we can see large pillars, curved shapes above the door, dome roof are still being used in many construction. The timelessness of intricately detailed carved ornaments will never stop adorn buildings.